On November 2, 2019, Cambodia enacted the Law on Electronic Commerce (“E-commerce Law”). This progress makes Cambodia the final member of the Affiliation of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)—one of the world’s speediest-rising world-wide-web markets—to adopt a domestic e-commerce legislation. The E-commerce Regulation addresses electronic communications, signatures, information, and evidence, and serves to explain the lawful natural environment for e-commerce in Cambodia.
In the last ten years, Cambodia has seasoned speedy improvement in the economical engineering sector, and economic products and services and products have come to be a lot more available to Cambodians. This economic inclusion, coupled with the availability of good equipment connected to the online, permits area e-commerce startups and encourages foreign e-commerce organizations to enter the market. To reinforce rely on and safety in the on line realm, Cambodia’s E-commerce Law regulates the pursuits of e-commerce service providers and intermediaries. The regulation also imposes buyer defense obligations, together with information security and cybersecurity obligations, on all e-commerce firms.
The E-commerce Legislation aims to regulate domestic and cross-border routines in Cambodia. All professional and civil acts, files, and transactions executed through an electronic process are issue to the E-commerce Legislation unless of course they are relevant to powers of lawyer, wills and successions, or actual estate.
The E-Commerce Regulation will just take effect in May 2020. All through the six-month gap involving the law’s passage and its implementation, organizations need to familiarize by themselves with the new obligations below the law, even though federal government businesses are expected to challenge rules to clarify and employ the legislation.
The provisions on digital communications that are identified in a part of Cambodia’s E-commerce Law generally derive from two influential performs of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Regulation (UNCITRAL) the 1996 Model Law on Electronic Commerce (MLEC) and the 2005 United Nations Convention on the Use of Digital Communications in Intercontinental Contracts (the “Electronic Communications Convention” or ECC).
Cambodia’s E-commerce Law explicitly recognizes the validity, lawful effect, admissibility, and enforceability of electronic communications and reconfirms that contracts can be designed electronically. In addition, digital communications may well satisfy needs imposed by outdated rules (e.g., “written,” “signed,” or “original” documents), if they fulfill particular conditions established out in the regulation.
The E-commerce Legislation commonly considers an electronic conversation to be sent when it leaves the originator’s details program and to be gained when it becomes able of currently being retrieved by the addressee. The destinations of small business of the originator and addressee, respectively, are thought of as the places exactly where an digital interaction is dispatched and been given.
It must be famous that Cambodia’s E-commerce Legislation does not contain comprehensive provisions on matters similar to the attribution of digital communications and acknowledgment of receipt, as suggested by the MLEC. For illustration, the MLEC clarifies that if an originator states that an email is conditional on receipt of its acknowledgment, that e mail would not be regarded as as sent until eventually the originator receives the acknowledgment. The Cambodian laws consists of no this sort of clarification.
Digital Signatures, Electronic Documents, and Electronic Evidence
The E-commerce Legislation sets circumstances for electronic signatures, like digital and biometric signatures, and digital documents to be deemed secure. By conference these statutory qualifications, secure electronic data are presumed to have not been altered, and secure electronic signatures are presumed to be of the signatories having the intent to indicator.
In late 2017, prior to the enactment of the E-commerce Law, Cambodia introduced a sub-decree on electronic signatures. This regulation supplies lawful recognition to digital signatures with a electronic signature certificate issued by a licensed digital signature certification authority. Having said that, the sub-decree has not been implemented still as no license has been issued to any electronic signature certification authority. Cambodia is possible to commence utilizing the regulation at the exact same time as the E-commerce Regulation. It will be vital to observe how these two legal devices correspond with just about every other in exercise.
Cambodia’s E-commerce Law, with certain provisions identical to the Design Regulation on Digital Evidence by the Commonwealth of Nations, also supports the admissibility of digital data as proof in lawful proceedings. The mere reality that proof is an electronic document simply cannot be applied as grounds to render the proof inadmissible.
The E-commerce Law also establishes principles on the validity, integrity, and authenticity of electronic proof. The validity of digital evidence depends on the integrity of the electronic technique that suppliers or records the information in problem. The E-commerce Regulation establishes situations in which an digital history satisfies the component of integrity until tested if not. The celebration introducing the proof has the stress to demonstrate its authenticity, and to do so the E-commerce Legislation makes it possible for that occasion to existing the courtroom with an authenticity certification issued by, for case in point, a competent authority or a courtroom-appointed skilled.
E-commerce Company Suppliers and Intermediaries, and Electronic Payment Techniques
E-commerce support companies and intermediaries are now required under the E-commerce Law to acquire operating licenses from the Ministry of Commerce (MOC) and the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications (MPTC). Having said that, the definitions of e-commerce services vendors and intermediaries are crafted broadly, and it is unclear whether these licensing needs also seize offshore e-commerce company suppliers and intermediaries running without the need of any neighborhood existence or long lasting institution in Cambodia. Considering that the E-commerce Law states that exceptions to this licensing routine will be clarified in the long term, we hope Cambodia will problem implementing rules that tackle this ambiguity just before the law is implemented in Might 2020.
The E-commerce Law produces a harmless harbor rule for e-commerce provider companies and intermediaries whereby they are not liable for illegal third-celebration content material on their on line platforms on the other hand, they have to comply with certain necessary content elimination techniques on becoming aware of these types of content. Moreover, they are obligated to comply with an e-commerce code of carry out.
The E-commerce Law also reaffirms that e-commerce service providers and intermediaries are subject matter to tax guidelines and incentives, just like brick-and-mortar enterprises.
Payment provider suppliers must also get hold of authorization or a license from the Nationwide Bank of Cambodia (NBC) in advance of commencing functions, these types of as functioning a payment procedure, supplying payment services, or issuing electronic payments. Nevertheless, numerous existing banking and economical institutions in Cambodia have now been offering these payment products and services and have acquired required authorizations underneath several regulations (e.g., the Prakas on Payment Service Providers and the Law on Banking and Economic Establishments). For that explanation, it stays uncertain no matter whether the E-commerce Law just reiterates the present licensing routine for payment provider suppliers or establishes a new, individual 1.
In addition, the E-commerce Legislation outlines scenarios the place payment support providers need to be liable for the destruction caused to clients except if the injury is brought about by force majeure or the customer’s possess fault.
Consumer Defense and Information Security
Moreover obligations below the freshly legislated Law on Customer Safety, which are applicable to each on the web and offline companies, the E-commerce Law imposes extra necessities to which e-commerce enterprises have to adhere.
The E-commerce Legislation necessitates anybody providing products or products and services using digital communications, other than insurance policies and security corporations, to disclose information and facts that is necessary for consumers to make a decision no matter whether to buy the products or companies. The data must at minimum contain names, addresses, contacts, expenses of the items and providers, and conditions and situations for payments, cancellation, refunds, and so on. Furthermore, it is strictly prohibited to send unsolicited communications devoid of delivering distinct and clear-cut choose-out guidance irrespective of the originator’s or recipient’s locations.
Facts defense regulations that utilize to all sectors have also been established out for the first time in the E-commerce Legislation. Any organization that electronically suppliers own information and facts is now obligated to set up all necessary steps to be certain that the data are moderately safeguarded from reduction or unauthorized accessibility, use, alteration, leaks, or disclosures. In addition, a human being who enters data inaccurately to an automated procedure that does not make it possible for any modification has the ideal to accurate or delete the inaccurate data.
The E-commerce Regulation is significantly-welcomed by shoppers, and is a positive step for the country’s electronic natural environment. In addition, the harmonization that it brings with other nations ought to really encourage cross-border transactions and paperless interactions among the businesses and involving enterprises and governmental bodies.